Sunday, May 24, 2020
We live in a universe of complexity and uncertainty. The global connectedness of the twenty first century means that everything in this world is interrelated and connected. Within the Australian context, due to globalisation and mass migration, Australia is ethnically and culturally diverse. Australia is also enriched with Indigenous Australian culture. A unique and multicultural community, Australia is therefore dynamic, diverse and constantly growing. This means that our schools are also dynamic, complex and culturally diverse. Students attending schools in Australia will come from diverse cultural backgrounds and will consequently have diverse needs. Using critical theory and post-colonialism, this paper will focus upon how teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ intercultural sensitivities about difference and diversity (more specifically, cultural diversity) might impact upon students learning. What does culture and diversity mean? Culture is what, why and how we do things. The Cultural Competence: Guidelines and Protocols document describes culture as Ã¢â¬Ëthe interplay of many elements which include behaviors, customs, beliefs, values and institutionsÃ¢â¬â¢. Culture can also be seen as Ã¢â¬Ëa lens through which we view the worldÃ¢â¬â¢ (Ethnic CommunitiesÃ¢â¬â¢ Council of Victoria, 2006). Therefore, culture is dynamic and relates to the contexts and places to which a person experiences and lives their every day life. It is important for teachers, students and their families to have an understanding and appreciation forShow MoreRelatedCultural Diversity and Communication Barriers1482 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesOrganizations Topic: Cultural diversity and communication barriers Instructors name: Robert Lindquist Date submitted 29 September 2010. Cultural diversity is the power which motivates the development of the thing that makes us different. Cultural diversity is the economic growth, which means leading a more fulfilling emotional, moral and spiritual life. It captures the culture principles, which provide a sturdy basis for the promotion of cultural diversity. Cultural diversity is an asset that is necessaryRead MoreCultural Diversity and Communication Barriers1490 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesOrganizations Topic: Cultural diversity and communication barriers Instructors name: Robert Lindquist Date submitted 29 September 2010. Cultural diversity is the power which motivates the development of the thing that makes us different. Cultural diversity is the economic growth, which means leading a more fulfilling emotional, moral and spiritual life. It captures the culture principles, which provide a sturdy basis for the promotion of cultural diversity. Cultural diversity is an asset that is necessaryRead MoreAnalysis Of The Article What Every American Should Know 1450 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages To understand Eric LiuÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion on having a common culture in the U.S and purpose it is important to know about his cultural background and career. LiuÃ¢â¬â¢s parents were born in China but Liu was born in Poughkeepsie, New York. He studied history in Yale University then got his degree and graduated from Harvard Law School. Liu has accomplished many things over the past couple years. He is the CEO for citizen university, which has a main focus in teaching the arts of being a powerful citizen who isRead MoreGateway Charter Academy Middle / High School1064 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbased on culture and diversity. The course name will be Exploring Diversity and Culture and it is a high school level and will be offer to 9-12 grades as credited course. As educators, we use the word diverse or diversity in our vocabulary every day, but what exactly does it mean. What is diversity? According to Merriam-Webster it is the quality or state of having many different forms, types, ideas, etc. and the state of having people who are different races or who have different cultures in a groupRead MoreThe Power of Cultural Diversity Essay1491 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCultural Diversity Cultural diversity is a powerful standard in human nature that stimulates the development of the stimuli that makes people worldwide diverse. It is the commercial growth, which means leading a more pleasantly passionate, ethical and spiritual life. It grasps the primary principles, which gives a solid foundation towards the elevation of cultural diversity. It is an advantage that is crucial for the reduction of poverty and the success of ecological growth. In cultural diversity, communicationRead MoreWhat Diversity and Multiculturalism Mean to Me Essay1364 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhat Diversity and Multiculturalism Mean to Me By David Meads What does Diversity and Multiculturalism mean to me? I believe that diversity has become so much more than just the basic qualities of race or gender. It now includes all qualities that make everyone unique, as individuals or as part of a larger group. It is also the acceptance, respect, and understanding of these unique qualities that makes diversity work in a given society. Multiculturalism is the system that is centered aroundRead MoreThe Importance Of Student Diversity1734 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesStudent diversity is a topic of interest within many of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s social settings, one being in the classroom. By creating awareness of the diversity within the classroom, we as teachers can provide a safe and welcoming learning space for our students. By educating students on topics such as race, gender, sexual orientation, physical ability and religion, we can celebrate all students and their individuality. We as teachers can allow students to use their individuality and celebrate it through clubsRead MoreThe Differences Between Diversity, Assumptions And Ethnocentrism So You Can Gain Understanding, Acceptance And Respect1529 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageslearn how to deal with the diversity. All of our patients are different and will need different care. Accommodating diversity will be easier with knowledge and experience and will make a difference in how we provide that care. If nurses can work together, we can make a difference in the health care system by not making assumptions, learning about our diverse patients and keeping our ethnocentrism in check. In this paper I will discuss the differences between diversity, assumptions and ethnocentrismRead MoreCultural Diversity in the Classroom754 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesUonites Cultural Diversity in the Classroom March 13, 2016 Sean Diana Part One: Collage: Personal Cultural Identity My ancestors came from Germany, Sweden, and Norway. My ancestorÃ¢â¬â¢s journey was by ship and landed in Ellis Island. What I value about my culture is my family and how important they are. I also value how we depend on one another to get through the day. Sisters, brothers, nieces and nephew, son and daughters. To be an American is to have the freedom to do what I want. To loveRead MoreAdvantages And Disadvantages Of Group Diversity1453 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Our country is highly complex, and the diversity amongst all the different groups of people can create a highly effective collaboration or create and unproductive conflict among individuals. The subject of diversity becomes more and more common today than ever before. Because any environment has the potential to be highly effective, it is imperative to accurately and effectively manage such situations. The importance of knowing how to manage diversity in groups, and how it plays into productivity
Monday, May 18, 2020
Why is snow white if water is clear? Most of us recognize that water, in pure form, is colorless. Impurities like mud in a river allow water to take on multiple other hues. Snow can take on other hues as well, depending on certain conditions. For instance, the color of snow, when compacted, can take on a blue hue. This is common in the blue ice of glaciers. Still, snow most often appears white, and science tells us why. Varied Colors of Snow Blue and white are not the only colors of snow or ice. Algae can grow on snow, making it appear more red, orange, or green. Impurities in the snow will make it appear as a different color, like yellow or brown. Dirt and debris near a road can make snow appear gray or black. Anatomy of a Snowflake Understanding the physical properties of snow and ice helps us understand the color of snow. Snow is tiny ice crystals stuck together. If you were to look at a single ice crystal by itself, you would see that it isÃ clear, but snow is different. When snow forms, hundreds of tiny ice crystals accumulate to form the snowflakes we are familiar with. Layers of snow on the ground are mostly air space, as lots of air fills in the pockets between fluffy snowflakes. Properties of Light and Snow Reflected light is why we see snow in the first place. Visible light from the sun is made up of a series of wavelengths of light that our eyes interpret as different shapes and colors. When light hits something, different wavelengths are absorbed or reflected back to our eyes. As snow falls through the atmosphere to lands on the ground, light reflects off the surface of theÃ ice crystals, whichÃ have multiple facets or faces. Some of the light that hits snow is scattered back out equally into all spectral colors, and since white light is made up of all colors in theÃ visible spectrum, ourÃ eyes perceive white snowflakes. No one sees one snowflake at a time. Usually, we see huge millions of snowflakes layering the ground. As light hits the snow on the ground, there are so many locations for light to be reflected that no single wavelength consistently gets absorbed or reflected. Therefore, most of the white light from the sun hitting the snow will reflect back as white light, so we perceive white snow on the ground, too. Snow is tiny ice crystals, and ice is translucent, not transparent like a windowpane. Light cannot pass through ice easily, and changes directions or reflects off the angles of interior surfaces. Because light bounces back and forth within the crystal, some light is reflected and some is absorbed. The millions of ice crystals bouncing, reflecting, and absorbing light in a layer of snow leads to neutral ground. That means there is no preference for one side of the visible spectrum (red) or the other (violet) to be absorbed or reflected, and all that bouncing adds up to white. The Color of Glaciers Mountains of ice formed by accumulating and compacting snow, glaciersÃ often lookÃ blue rather than white. While accumulated snow contains a lot of air separating the snowflakes, glaciers are different because glacial ice is not the same as snow. Snowflakes accumulate and get packed together to form a solid and mobile layer of ice. Much of the air is squeezed out of the ice layer. Light bends as it enters deep layers of ice, causing more and more of the red end of the spectrum to be absorbed. As red wavelengths are absorbed, blue wavelengths become more available to reflect back to your eyes. Thus, the color of glacier ice will then appear blue. Experiments, Projects, and Lessons There is no shortage of awesome snow science projects and experiments available for educators and students. In addition, a wonderful lesson plan on the relationship between snow and light is found in the Physics Central library. With only minimal preparation, anyone can complete this experiment on snow. The experiment was modeled after one completed by Benjamin Franklin.
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Sample details Pages: 9 Words: 2592 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Type Case study Did you like this example? Using the crime survey of England and Wales, examine how experience of crime affects citizens opinions of the criminal justice system. What demographic factors influence the relationship between experience of crime and rating of the criminal justice system? Introduction: In order to answer the question posed, the following analysis is split in to three sections. Firstly, Section 1 presents an initial inspection of the variables in the dataset. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Statistics Essay Example Downdload Free" essay for you Create order A statistical modelling procedure is then proposed in Section 2 in order to address which variables affect citizenÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions of the criminal justice system. Appropriate conclusions are then drawn in Section 3. Section 1: Description of the data 1.1: Variables in the dataset The crime survey of England and Wales provided data for 35371 individuals. There is a clear problem with missing data in the dataset, which will be investigated in due course and discussed in detail in Section 2. The variables in the dataset can be grouped in to three types for this analysis: (1) Demographic factors: Sex: categorical variable Age: continuous variable Marital status: categorical variable Respondent Social Class: categorical variable Type of area: categorical variable (2) Variables relating to citizenÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions of the criminal justice system, such as: How confident are you that the Criminal Justice System as a whole is effective? (4 level ordinal categorical variable ranging from Ã¢â¬Å"very confidentÃ¢â¬ to Ã¢â¬Å"not at all confidentÃ¢â¬ ) (3) Variable relating to citizenÃ¢â¬â¢s experience of crime: Experience of any crime in the previous 12 months? Categorical variable 1.2: Inspection of the data As a starting point, some initial inspections of the data were conducted by assessing variables on an individual basis. Of the 35371 individuals, there were 16176 males and 19195 females, as shown in Table 1. Hence there were no missing values for the sex variable. Table 1: Gender frequencies in the crime survey of England and Wales Valid Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Male 16176 45.7 45.7 45.7 Female 19195 54.3 54.3 100.0 Total 35371 100.0 100.0 For the continuous age variable, ages ranged from 16 to 99. There was a small percentage of individuals who did not give their age (0.33%), thus these responses are missing. See Section 2 for more details on missing values. Only 61 of the 35371 individuals did not provide their marital status (0.17%). Similar to the age variable, this percentage appears to not be meaningful. Table 2 shows the marital status frequencies in each of the 8 categories. The frequencies in the Ã¢â¬Å"same-sex civil partnership and living with partnerÃ¢â¬ category and the bottom two categories in Table 2 (all highlighted in bold) are small in comparison to the others. For the modelling procedure in Section 2, it is of benefit to have sufficiently large counts in each of the categories and to have a smaller number of categories. Consequently, the categories were combined in a relevant way. The Ã¢â¬Å"same-sex civil partnership and living with partnerÃ¢â¬ category was combined with the marri ed category. Similarly, the Ã¢â¬Å"SPONTANEOUS ONLY separated but legally in same-sex civil partnershipÃ¢â¬ was combined with the separated category. Finally, the Ã¢â¬Å"SPONTANEOUS ONLY surviving civil partnerÃ¢â¬ was combined with the widowed category. In other words, categories that relate to civil partnerships had to be combined with the corresponding same-sex partnerships due to small counts. Table 3 gives frequencies for the new marital status variable. Individuals who are either single or married account for nearly 75% of the dataset. This new marital status variable is used in the modelling procedure of Section 2 and is referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"MaritalStatusNewÃ¢â¬ from now on. The respondent social class categorical variable had a very large number of categories, therefore making interpretations difficult. Clearly there are too many categories for it to be considered as a categorical variable in a statistical model in Section 2. Although an attempt could be ma de to try and group the categories in to a much smaller number, this was not deemed sensible. This is because results in Section 2 could potentially differ drastically depending on the groupings chosen. In addition, 1765 individuals did not state their social class (4.99%). Given all these points, this variable was not considered further in Section 2. The type of area variable had no missing values with 27585 individuals (77.99%) stating that they live in an urban area and 7786 (22.01%) individuals stating that they live in a rural area. Table 2: Marital status frequencies in the crime survey of England and Wales Valid Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Single 10513 29.7 29.8 29.8 Married and living with husband/wife 15657 44.3 44.3 74.1 In a same-sex civil partnership and living with partner 90 .3 .3 74.4 Separated 1273 3.6 3.6 78.0 Divorced 3936 11.1 11.1 89.1 Widowed 3818 10.8 10.8 99.9 Separated but legally in same-sex civil partnership 18 .1 .1 100.0 Surviving civil partner 5 .0 .0 100.0 Total 35310 99.8 100.0 Missing System 61 0.2 Total 35371 100.0 Table 3: Marital status frequencies (with combined categories) in the crime survey of England and Wales Valid Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Single 10513 29.7 29.8 29.8 Married 15747 44.5 44.6 74.4 Separated 1291 3.6 3.7 78.0 Divorced 3936 11.1 11.1 89.2 Widowed 3823 10.8 10.8 100.0 Total 35310 99.8 100.0 Missing System 61 .2 Total 35371 100.0 The five variables relating to citizens opinions of the criminal justice system (type 2 in Section 1.1) have large proportions of missing values, as shown in Table 4. Table 4: Frequencies for citizenÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions of the criminal justice system How confident are you that the police are effective at catching criminals? How confident are you that the Crown Prosecution Service is effective at prosecuting people accused of committing a crime? How confident are you that prisons are effective at rehabilitating offenders who have been convicted of a crime? How confident are you that the probation service is effective at preventing criminals from re-offending? How confident are you that the Criminal Justice System as a whole is effective? Valid 17727 16892 16145 15193 17452 Missing 17644 18479 19226 20178 17919 Given the nature of the question, attention is focused on the Ã¢â¬Å"How confident are you that the Criminal Justice System as a whole is effective?Ã¢â¬ variable, which will be referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"CJSopinionÃ¢â¬ from now on. This is because interest lies in determining which variables affect citizenÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions of the criminal justice system generally rather than any specific aspects of it. A more detailed analysis would also focus on the other four variables. The CJSopinion variable will therefore be the dependent variable in Section 2. The consequences of the 17919 missing values (50.66%) are discussed in detail in Section 2. Table 5: How confident are you that the Criminal Justice System as a whole is effective (CJSopinion)? Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Very confident 573 1.6 3.3 3.3 Fairly confident 7556 21.4 43.3 46.6 Not very confident 7164 20.3 41.0 87.6 Not at all confident 2159 6.1 12.4 100.0 Total 17452 49.3 100.0 Refusal 2 .0 Dont know 779 2.2 System 17138 48.5 Total 17919 50.7 Total 35371 100.0 The final variable to consider is the variable relating to individuals experience of crime. This variable had no missing values with 29819 individuals (84.30%) stating that they had not been a victim of crime in the last 12 months. This variable will be referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"ExperienceOfCrimeÃ¢â¬ from now on. Section 2: Modelling the data 2.1: Potential approaches Based on Section 1.2, CJSopinion is chosen as the dependent variable with sex, age, MaritalStatusNew, type of area and experience of crime as the independent variables. The continuous variable age is mean centered to aid interpretability. There are a number of modelling based methods that one may consider in order to determine which of the independent variables significantly affect citizenÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions of the criminal justice system. For example: (1) Linear regression with CJSopinion as the dependent variable and sex, age, MaritalStatusNew, type of area and experience of crime as the independent variables. (2) Multinomial logistic regression with CJSopinion as the dependent variable and the same independent variables as (1). (3) Ordinal logistic regression with CJSopinion as the dependent variable and the same independent variables as (1). Approach (1) relies upon the assumption that the dependent variable is truly continuous and the intervals between consecuti ve values are equal, both of which are questionable for this case. Approach (2) is an acceptable approach but it does not exploit the fact that the dependent variable in this case is ordinal. Approach (3) is the preferred approach since it exploits the fact that the dependent variable is truly ordinal. In contrast to traditional logistic regression approaches, the ordinal approach in SPSS is based upon the logit of the cumulative probabilities. SPSS uses the proportional odds form of this model. The reader is referred to Agresti (2013, chapter 8.2) for more details. 2.2 Missing data and checking the adequacy of the model As detailed in Section 1.2, the dataset contains missing values on both the dependent and the marital status independent variable. The problem is of more concern for the dependent variable since 50.66% of the values were missing. The ordinal regression procedure in SPSS only allows for the listwise deletion method of dealing with missing data. The listwise deletion method deletes all the observations for any individual who has any missing values on either the independent or dependent variables. Despite this, listwise deletion still leaves 17427 individuals who have no missing values on any of the dependent or independent variables. However, listwise deletion is a strong assumption that relies on the missingness being random. The assumption was deemed to be acceptable for this dataset, the details of which are given in Section. More details on missing data are given in Agresti (2013, p. 471) and Little and Rubin (2002). Prior to running the ordinal regression model in SPSS it is important to make sure that there are no low cell counts for combinations of the dependent variable with each of the categorical independent variables in the dataset (for the individuals with no missing values). Crosstabs of the dependent variable against each of sex, MaritalStatusNew, type of area and experience of crime were assessed. All the counts were sufficiently large, thus the model was deemed acceptable to be run in SPSS. The proportional odds model also assumes a proportional odds assumption. This means that the model assumes the same regression effects for each cumulative logit (Agresti, 2013). This can be assessed in SPPS, as detailed in Section 2.3. 2.3 Ordinal logistic regression in SPSS In order to address the first part of the research question: Ã¢â¬Å"Examine how experience of crime affects citizens opinions of the criminal justice systemÃ¢â¬ , an ordinal logistic regression was run in SPSS with the dependent variable CJSopinion and independent variable experience of crime. For the dependent variable, Ã¢â¬Å"not at all confidentÃ¢â¬ is treated as the baseline and for experience of crime, Ã¢â¬Å"not a victim of crimeÃ¢â¬ is treated as the baseline. Ordinal logistic regression can be performed in SPSS by selecting the Analyze tab then Regression and then ordinal, as shown below. CJSopinion is then entered as the dependent variable and experience of crime as the single independent variable in the factor(s) box. In order to test the proportional odds assumption, the test of parallel lines tick box should be checked on the output tab, as shown below: The key part of the SPSS output is the parameter estimates. These are shown in the table be low. Table 6: Parameter estimates for the proportional odds model (no demographic variables) Estimate Std. Error Wald df Sig. [CJSopinion = very confident=1] -3.341 .043 6092.466 1 .000 [CJSopinion = fairly confident=2] -.090 .016 30.468 1 .000 [CJSopinion = not very confident=3] 2.010 .024 6975.842 1 .000 [ExperienceOfCrime=victim of crime=1] .301 .039 59.541 1 .000 [ExperienceOfCrime = not a victim of crime=0] 0a . . 0 . The model has three intercept parameters (one for each cumulative logit) and these are labelled thresholds in the parameter estimates. These parameters are not usually of interest unless interest lies in calculating response probabilities (Agresti, 2013). Attention is therefore focused on the location part of the parameter estimates. The experience of crime variable is statistically significant since the p value in the Sig column is 0.001. In order to interpret the coefficient, we can say that the odds of being less than or equal to a given value of the dependent variable are exp(0.301)=1.35 times greater for those who have been a victim of crime than those who are not a victim of crime. For example, for the lowest category of the dependent variable, the odds of being very confident in the criminal justice system are 1.35 times greater for those have been a victim of crime than those who have not been a victim of crime. The proportional odds assumption was found to be sa tisfied since the p-value in the sig column is not less than 0.05 (at the 5% significance level). The SPSS output is shown below. Table 7: Test of Parallel Linesa Model -2 Log Likelihood Chi-Square df Sig. Null Hypothesis 49.120 General 49.032 .087 2 .957 The next stage is to add the demographic variables in to the model. The table below shows the parameter estimates for this case. Table 8: Parameter estimates for the proportional odds model (with demographic variables) Estimate Std. Error Wald df Sig. [cjsovb1 = 1] -3.323 .060 3099.016 1 .000 [cjsovb1 = 2] -.063 .045 1.967 1 .161 [cjsovb1 = 3] 2.051 .048 1808.076 1 .000 AgeMeanCentered .008 .001 66.790 1 .000 [sex=Male] -.009 .029 .102 1 .749 [sex=Female] 0a . . 0 . [Type of area=urban -.028 .035 .667 1 .414 [Type of area=rural] 0a . . 0 . [MaritalStatusNew=Widowed] -.296 .065 20.602 1 .000 [MaritalStatusNew=Divorced] .230 .054 17.951 1 .000 [MaritalStatusNew=Separated] .080 .081 .975 1 .323 [MaritalStatusNew=Married] .110 .038 8.198 1 .004 [MaritalStatusNew=Single] 0a . . 0 . [ExperienceOfCrime=victim of crime=1] .357 .040 81.390 1 .000 [ExperienceOfCrime = not a victim of crime=0] 0a . . 0 . The experience of crime variable remains significant after the inclusion of the demographic variables with similar conclusions to before. The continuous variable age is significant. In order to interpret this variable, we can say that for a one unit increase in age, the odds of being very confident are exp(0.008)=1.008 times greater (holding other variables constant). For marital status, the odds of being very confident in the criminal justice system are exp(0.296)=1.34 times greater for those who are single than those who are widowed (holding other variables constant). In addition, the odds of being very confident in the criminal justice system are exp(0.230)=1.26 times greater for those who are divorced than those who are single(holding other variables constant). Similarly, the odds of being very confident in the criminal justice system are exp(0.110)=1.12 times greater for those who are married than those who are single (holding other variables constant). Type of area an d sex were non-significant. The proportional odds assumption was found to not be satisfied for this model since the p-value was less than 0.05. Rather than rejecting the model outright, Agresti (2013, page 307) recommends performing separate binary logistic regressions (by collapsing over the levels of the ordinal response) and comparing the parameter estimates obtained to those from the original proportional odds model. For this model, the estimates were not found to differ drastically so the assumption was deemed to be viable. 2.4 Assessing the listwise deletion of missing values SPSS only allows for listwise deletion of missing values when conducting ordinal regression. However, traditional linear regression techniques in SPSS allow for alternative methods for dealing with missing values. It is acknowledged that the use of traditional regression methods for an ordinal response is more questionable and open to debate. However, the same conclusions with regards to which variables are significant are obtained by treating the response as continuous as opposed to ordinal. Table 9: Parameter estimates for the linear regression model (with demographic variables) Parameter B Std. Error t Sig. Intercept 2.595 .017 149.591 .000 [sex=Male] -.003 .011 -.258 .796 [sex=Female] 0a . . . [Type of area=urban -.013 .014 -.933 .351 [Type of area=rural] 0a . . . [MaritalStatusNew=Widowed] -.114 .025 -4.499 .000 [MaritalStatusNew=Divorced] .092 .021 4.304 .000 [MaritalStatusNew=Separated] .029 .032 .920 .357 [MaritalStatusNew=Married] .044 .015 2.958 .003 [MaritalStatusNew=Single] 0a . . . [ExperienceOfCrime=victim of crime=1] .139 .015 8.982 .000 AgeMeanCentered .003 .000 8.191 .000 The same conclusions were also obtained when alternative methods were chosen for dealing with the missing values (pairwise deletion and mean substitution) thus giving more confidence in the results obtained for the original proportional odds regression model in Table 8. 3 Conclusions To conclude, the results of Section 2.3 indicate that experience of crime significantly affects citizenÃ¢â¬â¢s overall opinion of the criminal justice system. This was true before and after accounting for other relevant demographic variables. After accounting for other variables, the odds of being very confident in the criminal justice system were 1.43 times greater for those who have been a victim of crime than those who had not. Age and marital status were also found to significantly affect citizenÃ¢â¬â¢s overall opinions of the criminal justice system. Gender and whether the area was urban or rural were not found to affect citizenÃ¢â¬â¢s overall opinion of the criminal justice system. References: Agresti, A. (2013). Categorical Data Analysis, 3rd edition. New Jersey : John Wiley and Sons, Inc, Little, R. J. and Rubin, D.B. (2002). Statistical Analysis with Missing Data, 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The marsh is home; it is an open and muddy area. Our place is small and wooden. JonasÃ¢â¬â¢ Butchers and the green grocer, owned by the MartelliÃ¢â¬â¢s, are the local shops. You need money or privilege to even step inside though. The poorer people, such as myself, use the market. It supplies us with just enough, that is unless you have contacts with the Sticks. The place isnÃ¢â¬â¢t like it once was, not since it was handed over to the Sticks and the Elis Government. Sticks uphold the law; like policemen, but the horrible and murderous kind. They are the guards who stop us from running and trying to find sanctuary somewhere else, if there is somewhere else to go, unless, of course, you can entice them to help you. They are the ones that tear familiesÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦I have named this place whisper, as it sits in the woods and when the wind passes through the cracks, it whispers to the trees. There is only one room here, and a small working fireplace. Samuel my long time friend and I were stuck here when the snow fell last winter, and that is when we figured the fireplace still worked. It kept us warm for the night. Ã¢â¬Å"Lyla, we better get back. If the sticks notice we are missing before the hearing, weÃ¢â¬â¢re screwed,Ã¢â¬ Samuel says behind me. Ã¢â¬Å"Not only us, our family tooÃ¢â¬ I turn to look at him. He is a head taller than me, and I can see that fear has crept into his brown eyes and he runs his hand through his deep brown hair. Ã¢â¬Å"Okay letÃ¢â¬â¢s go,Ã¢â¬ I say with one longing glance to the opening in front of us. Ã¢â¬Å"One day we will get out of here and find our way from hereÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, but not unless we are dead first, then we canÃ¢â¬â¢t do shitÃ¢â¬ Samuel says, picking up our bow and arrows that we have made. I head towards him and pick up the sack filled with two small rabbits. One for each of us. Ã¢â¬Å"I would rather run for my life and be killed for it then die living hereÃ¢â¬ I say as we walk down the bank and into the thick of the trees. Birds fly around us, calling to another as we pass a small nest in a tree. Ã¢â¬Å"Birds are free and carefree, why canÃ¢â¬â¢t we be?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Because apparently we are the livestock and the marsh is the slaughterhouse just waiting for the beef truck,Ã¢â¬ I say as weShow MoreRelatedWorld of Leptospirosis2684 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesbacterial infection in humans. The infection is commonly transmitted to humans by allowing water that has been contaminated by animal urine to come in contact with unhealed breaks in the skin, the eyes, or with the mucous membranes. Outside of tropical areas, leptospirosis cases have a relatively distinct seasonality with most of them occurring AugustÃ¢â¬âSeptember/FebruaryÃ¢â¬âMarch. 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How many weeks a year does an area need to show standing water in order to be a pond? How about a bird bath or dog water dish, as both can breed aquatic insects if left undisturbed for a few days? For our purposes, we have a number of aquatic systems that hold water all year (in mostRead MoreRespiratory System9190 Words Ã |Ã 37 Pageslocated just beneath the surface, so that diffusing distances are small. Organisms too large to satisfy their oxygen needs from the environment by diffusion are equipped with special respiratory structures in the form of gills, lungs, specialized areas of the intestine orÃ pharynxÃ (in certain fishes), or tracheae (air tubes penetrating the body wall, as in insects). 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Nevertheless, on the second floor there is one window which is not boarded; sometimes in the late afternoon when the heat is at its worst a hand will slowly open the shutter and a face will look down on the town. It is a face like the terrible dim faces known in dreams -- sexless and white, with two gray crossed eyes which are turned inward so sharply that they seem to be exchanging with each other one longRead MoreIgbo Dictionary129408 Words Ã |Ã 518 Pagesother. This dialect is also a Compromise Igbo - but with a Northern instead of a Southern flavour. It has already been noted that there are dialect variations with in the Onitsha area. A few points about the Onitsha Town dialect may be noted here: 1. The dialect of Onitsha Town (and at least some parts of the Asaba area) has no /gh/ [V]. It is replaced by /y/ before front vowels, /w/ before back vowels. In the dictionary, the more general forms with /gh/ have been used, but the /y/ or /w/ forms haveRead MoreStrategy Safari by Mintzberg71628 Words Ã |Ã 287 Pagescage until they come to the one called WAYOUT, but the nicest people go straight to the animal they love the most, and stay there. Ã¢â¬âA. A. Milne, in the Introduction to Winnie-The-Pooh We dedicate this book to such people who are more interested in open fields than closed cages. CONTENTS Embarkation 1 And Over Here, Ladies and Gentlemen: The Strategic Management Beast 2 The Design School Strategy Formation as a Process of Conception 3 The Planning School Strategy Formation as a Formal ProcessRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 PagesUniversity of Florida Barbara Low, Dominican University Doyle Lucas, Anderson University Alexandra Luong, University of Minnesota Rick Maclin, Missouri Baptist University Peter Madsen, Brigham Young University Lou Marino, University of Alabama Catherine Marsh, Northpark University J. David Martin, Midwestern State University Timothy A. Matherly, Florida State University John Mattoon, State University of New York Paul Maxwell, Saint Thomas University Brenda McAleer, University of Maine at Augusta Christina
People outside Christianity, or any religion, may think that being a Christian is easy. People may believe it is just holiness and happiness, but that is not always the case. There are many obstacles and much difficulty that they have to get through before they actually reach happiness and their religious goals with God. Other individuals could be an issue because people may have different beliefs. People may mock the Christian ways and the way the certain Christians are living. Also individuals that either do not believe in God or are against the religious world can be a problem for us. Having a friend or family member that does not believe in the same thing you do could be difficult and may possibly cause a problem. It may possibly tear a relationship apart. When praying it may be difficult for two people because yes, you and your friend will be praying together but inside you will be praying to two different Gods, which may be awkward. Different religion beliefs may also be an issue at gatherings or events. If you invite your Islamic friend over for dinner and the main course was ham, it will cause an issue and might cause confrontation. But Acts 4:12 says Ã¢â¬Å"Salvation is found in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given to mankind by which we must be savedÃ¢â¬ basically saying God and Jesus are the only ones you should believe in, not any of these false gods. And by you doing so you will be saved. For someone to bash the religion can be a problem.Show MoreRelatedEssay Christians And Non-christian Culture917 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesto unite as one under God and rise up against the evil forces of the world. In order to do this everyone, both religious and the not religious, need to be aware of and recognize the lifestyles of each other. Non Christians should at least study the Philosophy of Christianity, as Christians should explore the philosophy of infidelity. Justin Martyr found discussion with Tryphno very stimulating because the two ended up sharing similar viewpoints on important religious philosophies. (Justin, DialogueRead More John BunyanÃ¢â¬â¢s Pilgrimes Progress Essay1128 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesfascinating story describes the life of Christian, a married man living in the City of Destruction, who longs to travel to the Celestial City. As Christian struggles to stay on the right, though more difficult path, I fight to focus in school and not pay attention to distracti ng ideas. I also fight to get strong enough in dance to become a professional dancer, just as Christian has to climb the Hill of Difficulty to get to the Palace Beautiful. In order for Christian to arrive at the Celestial City withoutRead MoreThe Death Of Jesus Left1243 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesActs 2, it tells of the gift that Jesus sent, the Holy Spirit, filling up the disciples with excitement and sparking the need to spread the gospel. The spread of christianity was not easy, and it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t exactly quick, but it did spread effectively, and it left itÃ¢â¬â¢s mark on the world. The spread of Christianity was not easy. Everyone wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t as accepting of the faith, especially the already existing churches of the western world. Persecution and hate flared up all over. The Sanhedrin had always been againstRead MoreMy Favorite Partnership With Vibella Jewelry929 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesI grew up in the small, Dutch, Christian town of Sioux Center, Iowa. I walked 2 blocks to a local Reformed church right across the street from my house. I attended Sunday school and catechism every Sunday and Wednesday. In middle school and high school, I attended many church camps and did countless service projects. Two of my favorite partnerships was with ViBella Jewelry. ViBella is a Christian organization that works with women in Haiti by giving them jobs making jewelry from old plastic bottlesRead MoreWhy Didn t Hypocrisy Make It Onto The 7 Deadly Sins List?851 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesteeming with sin. Even in the final sentence of the essay, the speaker Coyle mentions how a Ã¢â¬Å"Guess Your WeightÃ¢â¬ booth was excluded due to so many people showing pride or envy. Since such an event was by the Church, God would not appreciate sins being committed there. But the speaker then proves to be hypocritical, providing an example of judgment on the young Melissa Wyckoff, whom many men had the hots for. Although the author shows how hypocritical this group is, they forget that we are all likeRead MorePicturing The Bible By Spier J. Art Museum, Fort Worth1007 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Picturing the bible explores the tradition of Christian art throughout the third century A.D. Christianity slowly emerged becoming the religion of the Roman Empire. This book is based on Christianity and how the religion was viewed through images. The text has an ere of concepts that ties in the concepts of Christians to the beginning of the start of Christianity. The purpose of this book is to show the readers the difference between how Christian art was represented and how other art was portrayedRead MoreChristianity and Islam763 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesUnfortunately it is hard to say or believe if they will ever reconcile because of their differences. Inherited from Judaism, Islam and Christianity are beliefs that believe that God created the world and cares about the behavior and beliefs of human beings. There is no coincidence that the two largest religions in the world both have the same foundation and origin. In fact, in their scriptures they share the same character, stories and basic fundamentals of belief. Some of the many similarities foundRead MoreEssay on C.S. Lewis: Mere Christianity1251 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesto be the Son of God, t he three personal God, the relationship of God and time, the cost of being a Christian, how God works to turn us into image of Christ, why Christian growth is both hard and easy, and also what he thinks about our old personalities before becoming Christians. These are all relative topics that apply to us and our daily lives. Learning and understanding this book can help a Christian tremendously in forming a deeper relationship with God. Chapter One is a discussion aboutRead MoreHow Does The Christian World Look For The Outsider? David Kinnaman1627 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHow does the Christian world look to the outsider? David Kinnaman along with the Barna group attempt to answer this question in UnChristian. Oddly enough the five most common adjectives used by people literalistic, anti-intellectual, self-righteous, judgmental, and bigoted. Us Christians might object, rather defensively to try an sway the crowd, playing the card off, Ã¢â¬Å"that s unfair to draw sweeping conclusions based upon the report of one person in the church.Ã¢â¬ If you think that way, you d be rightRead MoreThe, Visible M A World Without Secrets1512 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Antarctic penguins detect the precise call of their chicks among the 150,000 families in the nesting siteÃ¢â¬ (Christin 96). If only it were this easy to know who you were talking to online. This leads me to Peter SingerÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Visible Man: Ethics in a W orld Without SecretsÃ¢â¬ which he explains that being watched through surveillance increases our morals. And Brian Christians Ã¢â¬Å"AuthenticatingÃ¢â¬ discusses the importance of artificial intelligence and what makes us human. Both of the articles listed describes how technology
Question: Discuss About the Present Win the Issue Tamara? Answer: Intoducation Tamara now wishes to sue Aldi Supermarkets in negligence for her losses. Aldi Supermarkets can prove that a staff member inspects the supermarket aisles and cleans up any spillages every 40 minutes. Advise Tamara. Issue: The facts given in the present case to win the issue if Tamara will be successful if it sues Aldi Supermarkets in negligence. The reason is that Tamara suffered an injury when she slipped on the floor in a puddle of ice cream. Due to the fall, Tamara suffered serious injuries on her back. Therefore, she had to remain in hospital for a long time and the general damages amounted to more than $700,000. Therefore, Tamara wants to know if she has a case against Aldi supermarkets in negligence. At the time of giving this advice, any differences that may be available to the supermarket. Also needs to be considered, especially as the supermarket claims that they have a staff member who regularly inspects the aisles and cleans any spillage after every 40 minutes. Therefore, the principles of law negligence, have to be applied in this case, and it has to be examined is the necessary elements for negligence can be established in this case or not. Rule: The law provides that when a party has a duty of care in favor of the other party, negligence can be described as doing something or the failure to do something that would be done by any other reasonable person and due to which, injury or damage has been caused to the other party (Donoghue v Stevenson, 1932). For the purpose of finding if negligence is present in a particular case and also to fix the responsibility of the defendant for negligence; Civil Liability Act can also be relied upon. When it has been decided by one party that the other party should be soon in negligence, financial compensation is sought by such a party from the defendant for the damage that was caused to it (Hepple, 1997). Therefore, in negligence, damages are provided with a view to place the claimant in the same position in which he or she would have been if there was no negligence on the part of the defendant. In order to determine if the defendant can be held as negligent, there are four elements that nee d to be established by the claimant. For this purpose, it has to be established that the defendant owed a duty of care, there should be a breach of the duty of care, some injury or damage should have been suffered by the claimant and this injury or damage should be the direct result of the contravention of the duty of care (Barker, 1993). Under the law of negligence, all these elements should exist so that it can be said that the claimant as a successful claim against the defendant in negligence. On the other hand, even if one of these elements does not exist, the negligence of the defendant cannot be established. In this way, it is very significant to describe the meaning of duty of care. Under the law of negligence, this duty can be explained as the legal obligation of the defendant, which requires that injury or damage should not be caused to others. The duty of care of a person exists when it can be reasonably foreseen that the other person may suffer harm if reasonable care is not exercised. According to the law, this duty will be present only if sufficient proximity exists between the claimant and the defendant and due to this proximity, it can be stated that the defendant had the duty in favor of the claimant. An example of such a case is the duty of care that a motor vehicle driver has towards other persons pr esent on the road. But in this regard, the civil liability act has imposed certain qualifications on the duty of care, for example food donors and good Samaritans. The claimant can bring a successful election in negligence if there is a breach of duty of care. For the purpose of determining if there has been a breach of this duty, the court considers the standard of care that is applicable in the particular case (Stapleton, 2003). This standard of care can be applied on the basis of the fact if any other reasonable person would also have acted in the same way under similar circumstances. If it can be said that the actions of the defendant fell below the standard of care and cannot be described as reasonable, it can be determined that the defendant is liable for the breach of duty that he owed towards the claimant. For a successful action in negligence, it also needs to be established that the injury or damage caused to the claimant was the direct consequence of such a breach (Stapleton, 1991). For example, if a person falls on the wet floor, it can be said that a direct connection exists between the wet floor and the injuries suffered by such a person. Application: After mentioning the requirements for a successful election in negligence, and advice can be given to Tamara that she may have a successful claim against Aldi Supermarkets. Tamara saw from a distance that only one bar of her favorite chocolate was left for sale, she ran to grab it. When another customer also walked towards the chocolate bar, Tamara ran even faster, and therefore she slipped on the floor, where a puddle of ice cream was present. Tamara suffered serious injuries when she fell on the floor. Therefore, Tamara can successfully sued the supermarket in negligence, because all the necessary elements to establish the negligence of the supermarket are present. Conclusion: Even if the supermarket established that one of these top members regularly inspected the aisles and similarly any spillage on the floor was clean within 40 minutes, a defense will not be available to the supermarket. This is due to the reason that even in such a case, it can be said that the injuries caused to Tamara were the direct result of the fact that the supermarket has breached its duty of care towards her. References Bob Hepple, (1997) Negligence: The Search for Coherence, 50 Current Legal Problems 69 Jane Stapleton, (1991) Duty of Care and Economic Loss: A Wider Agenda 107 Law Quarterly Review 249 Jane Stapleton, (2003) The Golden Thread at the Heart of Tort Law: Protection of the Vulnerable 24 Australian Bar Review 135 Kit Barker, (1993) Unreliable Assumptions in the Modern Law of Negligence, 109 Law Quarterly Review 461, 483
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Listed in the Philippine Stock Exchange in 2007 after a successful initial public offering, the company has built its reputation for delivering its projects on time, without sacrificing the beauty and functionality of its developments. Initially finding its niche within the affluent Filipino-Chinese community, ALHI has brought modern condo living to Old Manila through a fusion of current trends and traditional comforts and practices. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s developments take inspiration from upscale condos in major cities around the world while incorporating age-old Feng Shui principles. Building on the successful formula of its first project, the 33-storey Lee Tower in Binondo which was sold out within 9 months and delivered ahead of schedule in 2006, ALHI has continued its dynamic and aggressive approach to take on even bigger and bolder challenges. The company has several ongoing developments, with more in the pipeline. It has started turning over units to buyers of its Mayfair Tower along UN Avenue in Ermita, in the heart of colonial Old Manila, and its second condominium in Binondo, the Mandarin Square, which by the end of 2008 is more than 50 percent completed. We will write a custom essay sample on Ojt Doc or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Both developments will take condo living in Manila to a higher level with first class amenities rivaling the best there is in the country. Anchor Land likewise broke ground for its Solemare Parksuites, its first project outside of the City of Manila, in December of 2008. The 18-storey twin tower residential project at the ASEANA Business Park in Paranaque City, near the humongous Mall of Asia, caters to those who want to be at the center of Metro ManilaÃ¢â¬â¢s emerging cultural and entertainment hub along scenic Manila Bay. Among the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s plans are the development of the tallest building in Binondo, Manila, the 56-storey Anchor Skysuites that is guaranteed to further raise the benchmark in the Chinatown district, as well as projects in San Juan, another in Ermita, a fourth project in Binondo, among others. What sets the company apart from other Philippine developers is its ability to execute its business plans. While others give tremendous focus and attention to their business development efforts but hardly sustain them afterwards, Anchor Land makes sure that its business plans are meticulously implemented. The secret lies in the active involvement of its key people in sales and marketing from the conceptualization stage and throughout the development of each project, with each department Ã¢â¬â from business development to engineering, finance, sales and customer relations Ã¢â¬â all in constant touch to ensure the seamless, on time delivery of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s commitments. In 2008, the company has started to attract the attention not only of local investors, but international award-giving bodies as well for its sterling performance. Anchor Land was one of only two Philippine companies included in Forbes MagazineÃ¢â¬â¢s list of 200 Best Companies in Asia with capitalization of under $1 billion, a feat made possible by the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s sterling financial performance amidst the global economic slowdown. Internally, the company continues to build and strengthen its organization with the goal by recruiting and honing the best talents available in the manpower market, and by maintaining a small but dedicated cadre of sales people who have imbued Anchor LandÃ¢â¬â¢s corporate values of discipline, commitment, and excellent service. The company values each and every employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s contributions, and recognizes them via a rewards and recognition system that puts premium on providing the best service to customers throughout the whole cycle of each and every project. III. Summary of OJT Experience IV. Assessment of the OJT/Practicum Program A. New Knowledge, attitudes and skills acquired Being the intern of the I. T. Department of Anchor Land Holdings Inc. I have learned many things that are beneficial for me and for my well Ã¢â¬â being. Here is the list of the skills that I acquired during my internship period: -Organization of files. -Networking. -Remote Access. -LAN cables. -LAN and Internet connections. -Centralized server. -Ncomputing technology -Computer building. -Kaspersky Lab. -Organization Security. -Data Back-up. -Routers For Troubleshooting -Printers -Fax Machine -Photocopy Machine. -Outlook. -Web connectivity. -Skype. -Computers. -Routers.